Introduction. Epidemiological studies are a key element to know the evolution and spread of HIV infection among the world population. The knowledge of the epidemiological dynamics improves the strategies of prevention and monitoring.
Methods. We examined 2,272 subjects who voluntarily underwent to HIV testing from January 1992 to December 2015. For each subject, an anonymous form was filled to get information on personal data, sexual habits and exposure to risk factors.
Results. The number of subjects who underwent to the screening test has increased over the years and the average age of the tested subjects has decreased over time. The main motivation to undergo HIV testing was unprotected sex. Even if the heterosexual subjects who carried out the test were more numerous of homosexuals, it is highlighted, during the years, an increase in the latter.
Conclusions. Although the number of performed tests has increased over the years, the persistence of unprotected sex shows an inadequate perception of risk. Therefore, it is necessary to implement programs to increase the general awareness of HIV infection. It is also essential to constantly monitor behaviour, risk perception and the application of the screening test via surveillance systems in order to implement effective and efficient prevention.
Goldberg DJ, Emslie JA, Smyth W, Reid D. A system for surveillance of voluntary HIV testing: results of the first 2 years, 1989-1990. AIDS 1992;6:495-500.
Borghi V, Girardi E, Bellelli S, Angeletti C, Mussini C, Porter K, Roberto Esposito R. Late presenters in an HIV Surveillance System in Italy during the period 1992-2006. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008;49:282-6.
Camoni L, Regine V, Salfa MC, Nicoletti G, Canuzzi P, Magliocchetti N, Rezza G, Suligoi B; SerT Study Group. Continued high prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among injecting and noninjecting drug users in Italy. Ann Ist Super Sanità 2010;6:59-65.
Camoni L, Raimondo M, Regine V, Salfa MC, Suligoi B. Regional representatives of the HIV Surveillance System. Late presenters among persons with a new HIV diagnosis in Italy, 2010-2011. BMC Public Health 2013;13:281.
Camoni L, Regine V, Stanecki K, Salfa M C, Raimondo M, Suligoi B. Estimates of the number of People Living with HIV in Italy. BioMed Research International 2014;2014:209619.
Giuliani M, Di Carlo A, Palamara G, Dorrucci M, Latini A, Prignano G, Stivali F, Rezza G. Incrised HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in Rome. AIDS 2005;19:1429-31.
Mammone A, Pezzotti P, Angeletti C, Orchi N, Carboni A, Navarra A, Sciarrone MR, Sias C, Puro V, Guasticchi G, Ippolito G, Borgia P, Girardi E; SENDIH Study Group. HIV incidence estimate combining HIV/AIDS surveillance, testing history information and HIV test to identify recent infections in Lazio, Italy. BMC Infect Dis 2012;12: 65.
Kilmarx PH. Global epidemiology of HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009;4:240-6.
Suligoi B, Rezza G. HIV infection: incidence estimate and surveillance systems. Epidemiol Prev 2003;27:67-9.
Bunnell R, Mermin J, De Cock KM. HIV prevention for a threatened continent: implementing positive prevention in Africa. JAMA 2006;296:855-8.
Kennedy CE, Medley AM, Sweat MD, O’Reilly KR. Behavioral interventions for HIV positive prevention in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analisys. Bull World Health Organ 2010;88:615-23.
Wechsberg WM, Golin C, El-Bassel N, Hopkins J, Zule W. Current interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviours crack cocaine use among HIV-infected individuals. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2012;9:385-93.
Handford CD, Tynan AM, Rackal JM, Glazier RH. Setting and organization of care for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD004348.
Ko NY, Liu HY, Lai YY, Pai YH, Ko WC. Case management interventions for HIV- infected individuals. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2013;10:390-7.
Dorrucci M. Epidemiology of HIV. Update. Recenti Prog Med 2010;101:12-15.
Camoni L, Federico B, Capelli G, Regine V,Salfa MC, Nicoletti G, Canuzzi P, Magliocchetti N, Rezza G, Suligoi B, SERT Study Group. Few Italian drug users undergo HIV testing. AIDS Behav 2011;15:711-7.
Giuliani M, Vescio MF, Latini A, Palamara G, Pimpinelli F, Donà M G, Stivali F, Carduccelli F, Ensoli F, Di Carlo A, Rezza G. Continous increase in HIV-1 incidence after the year 2000 among men who have sex with men in Rome: insights from a 25-years retrospective cohort study. Euro Surveill 2014;19:20969.
Mulieri I, Santi F, Colucci A, Fanales-Belasio E, Gallo P and Luzzi AM. Sex workers clients in Italy: results of a phone survey on hiv risk behaviour and perception. Ann Ist Super Sanità 2014;50:363-8.
Kalichman SC, Rompa D, Cage M, DiFonzo K, Simpson D, Austin J, Luke W, Buckles J, Kyomugisha F, Benotsch E, Pinkerton S, Graham J. Effectiveness of an intervention to reduce HIV transmission risks in HIV-positive people. Am J Prev Med 2001;21:84-92.
Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ, Mikhail I, Lang DL, McCree DH, Davies SL, Hardin JW, Hook EW 3rd, Saag M. A randomized controlled trial to reduce HIV transmission risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases among women living with HIV: The WiLLOW Program. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;37:S58-67.
Yin L, Wang N, Vermund SH, Shefherd BE, Ruan Y, Shao Y and Qian HZ. Sexual risk reduction for HIV-infected persons: a meta-analytic review of “positive prevention” randomized clinical trials. PLoS One 2014;9:e107652.