Measuring the Structures of the Health Belief Model Integrated with Health Literacy in Predicting University Students’ Adoption of Smoking Preventive Behaviors


Health Belief Model, Health Literacy, Smoking, Preventive Behaviors


Objective(s): One of the priorities of public health in reducing smoking is to prevent young people from becoming smokers. Health literacy (HL), smoking, and preventive behaviors are related. Moreover, HL has a potential impact on strengthening the Health Belief Model (HBM). Considering the high prevalence of smoking among university students, the current study was conducted to measure the structures of the HBM integrated with HL in predicting university students’ adoption of smoking preventive behaviors.    

Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Three hundred and forty dormitory students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2016, were selected through single-stage cluster sampling for the study. The data gathering tool was a researcher-made questionnaire based on the HBM and the HL inventory for adults (HELIA). The data were analyzed using SPSS software version.16, descriptive statistical, Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple regression and independent T-test.

Results: The multiple regression analysis showed that the application of health information from five dimensions of HL, perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, and decision-making dimensions were the predictors of smoking prevention. Also, the structures of this integrated model were able to anticipate 36.5% of the behavioral changes.

Conclusion: The HBM integrated with HL can be used as an appropriate framework for designing educational programs in order to encourage university students to adopt smoking preventive behaviors.


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