Infant mortality is among the most important indicators of health and development in global communities. One of the causes of neonatal mortality is low birth weight. This study aims at evaluating the risk factors for LBW in infants.This study was carried out using a nested case-control study in rural areas of Kurdistan province in western Iran in 2015. The selection of case and control groups was based on the nesting using the risk set sampling approach. In total, 182 and 364 subjects were selected for the case group and the control group respectively. Data analysis was performed using the Stata-12 software with the point and spatial estimation of OR using the conditional logistic regression method.The multivariate logistic regression analysis performed shows that the maternal gestational age, the mother’s health history during pregnancy, any medication abuse by the mother, any mental stress during pregnancy, are LBW risk factors (P <0.05). Prevention of LBW is possible by identifying effective factors and performing appropriate interventions in infants with low birth weight. The causes of LBW in global communities are changing rapidly. Mothers with the risk factors reported in this study should be identified and specially treated.
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