Significant evidence suggests an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and tobacco smoking, where inequality is visible among different social and economic strata. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and economic and social inequalities in tobacco smoking in women aged 15-54 in Iran. This study is a cross-sectional study. Sampling in this study was a randomized clustered multistage sampling with equal clusters. A total of 35,305 women aged 15-55 enrolled in the study. Data analysis was in two stages. In the first stage, the social and economic inequalities were investigated using the concentration index and concentration curve method, and in the second method, and multilevel method was used to identify the determinants. The prevalence of tobacco smoking in women was 12.24%. The concentration index for smoking was CI = -0.07 [95% CI (-0.09, -0.05)], which represents smoking in people with low socioeconomic status. The results of the multilevel analysis indicated that the marital status of people over the age of 35 and the economic class was related to smoking in women. Inequality in tobacco smoking in women is to the interest of the well-off group, and this inequality varies in different provinces. Marital status, place of residence, age and socioeconomic status of women are factors influencing the prevalence of tobacco smoking in women, and these issues should be noticed to reduce inequalities.
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