Background. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide handling and related health problems among pesticide applicators (PAs) from the Autonomous Province of Trento, Italy.
Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed in spring 2016, involving 260 PAs. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with a safer use of pesticides.
Results. The mean age of participants was 48.8 ± 13.2 years. 89.2% were males. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was diffuse, particularly gloves (92.7%), face mask (91.2%), and post-spraying personal hygiene practices were extensively applied. Overall, 43.5% had experienced pesticide-related symptoms especially in subjects misusing PPE, but also for avoiding hygienic procedures. Knowledge about pesticides was a significant predictor for frequency of symptoms.
Conclusions. As a better knowledge of pesticide-related risks was a significant predictor to reduce symptoms, our results stress that improving awareness and promoting safe use of pesticide may improve the health of PAs.
Hashemi SM, Hosseini SM, Hashemi MK. Farmers’ perceptions of safe use of pesticides: determinants and training needs. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2012: 85(S1): 57–66. doi: 10.1007/s00420-011-0641-8.
Damalas CA, Eleftherohorinos IG. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011; 8(5): 1402–1419. doi: 10.3390/ijerph8051402.
Damalas CA, Hashemi SM. Pesticide risk perception and use of personal protective equipment among young and old cotton growers in northern Greece. Agrociencia 2010; 44(3): 363–371. http://www.scielo.org.mx/pdf/agro/v44n3/v44n3a10.pdf Accessed August 16, 2017 (Italian)
Salameh PR, Baldi I, Brochard P, Saleh BA. Pesticides in Lebanon: a knowledge, attitude, and practice study. Environ Res 2004; 94(1): 1–6. doi: 10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00092-6.
Verger PJP, Boobis AR. Global food supply. Reevaluate pesticides for food security and safety. Science 2013; 341(6147): 717–718. doi: 10.1126/science.1241572.
Fan L, Niu H, Yang X, Qin W, Bento CP, Ritsema CJ, Geissen V. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China. Sci Total Environ 2015; 537: 360–368. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.150.
Yang X, Wang F, Meng L, Zhang W, Fan L, Geissen V, Ritsema CJ. Farmer and retailer knowledge and awareness of the risks from pesticide use: A case study in the Wei River catchment, China. Sci Tot Environ 2014; 497-498: 172–179. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.118.
Strong LL, Thompson B, Koepsell TD, Meischke H. Factors associated with pesticide safety practices in farmworkers. Am J Ind Med 2007; 51(1): 69–81. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20519.
Jeyaratnam J. Acute pesticide poisoning: a major global health problem. World Health Stat Q 1990; 43(3): 139–144. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/51746/1/WHSQ_1990_43_n3_p139-144_eng.pdf Accessed 16, August 2017
World Health Organization. The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/2004_report_update/en/ Accessed August 16, 2017
Ríos-González A, Jansen K, Sánchez-Pérez HJ. Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: towards a knowledge-in-context model. Environ Res 2013; 124: 43–53. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2013.03.006.
Settimi L, Davanzo F, Urbani E, Giordano F, Cossa L. National informative system for surveillance of toxic exposures and poisonings: cases identified in 2010. 5th annual report. Report No.: 14/13. Rome, Italian National Health Institute, 2014. http://www.iss.it/binary/publ/cont/14_13_web.pdf Accessed August 16, 2017
Hashemi SM, Damalas CA. Farmers' Perceptions of Pesticide Efficacy: Reflections on the Importance of Pest Management Practices Adoption. J Sust Agricul 2010; 35(S1): 69–85. doi: 10.1080/10440046.2011.530511
Lekei EE, Ngowi AV, London L. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania. BMC Public Health 2014; 14: 389. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-389
Lekei EE, Ngowi AV, London L. Pesticide retailers’ knowledge and handling practices in selected towns of Tanzania. Environmental Health 2014; 13: 79. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-79.
Khan M, Damalas CA. Farmers' willingness to pay for less health risks by pesticide use: A case study from the cotton belt of Punjab, Pakistan. Sci Total Environ 2015; 530-531: 297–303. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.110.
Van Hoi P, Mol APJ, Oosterveer PJM. Market governance for safe food in developing countries: The case of low-pesticide vegetables in Vietnam. J Environ Manage 2009; 91(1): 380–388. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.09.008.
Grovermann C, Schreinemachers P, Berger T. Quantifying pesticide overuse from farmer and societal points of view: An application to Thailand. Crop Prot 2013; 53: 161–168. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2013.07.013.
Stadlinger N, Mmochi AJ, Kumblad L. Weak Governmental Institutions Impair the Management of Pesticide Import and Sales in Zanzibar. Ambio 2012; 42(1): 72–82. doi: 10.1007/s13280-012-0338-6.
Ibitayo OO. Egyptian Farmers' Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Agricultural Pesticides: Implications for Pesticide Risk Communication. Risk Anal 2006; 26(4): 989–995. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00794.x.
Karunamoorthi K, Mohammed M, Wassie F. Knowledge and Practices of Farmers With Reference to Pesticide Management: Implications on Human Health. Arch Environ Occup Health 2012; 67(2): 109–116. doi: 10.1080/19338244.2011.598891.
Tijani AA. Pesticide use practices and safety issues: the case of cocoa farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. J Hum Ecol 2006; 19(3): 183–190.
Sam KG, Andrade HH, Pradhan L, Pradhan A, Sones SJ, Rao PG, Sudhakar C. Effectiveness of an educational program to promote pesticide safety among pesticide handlers of South India. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2008; 81(6): 787–795. doi: 10.1007/s00420-007-0263-3
Chen S, He F, Zhang Z, Gao Y, Zhou A, Xie C, Xiong L, Chen D, Wang S, Jia J.. Evaluation of a safety educational programme for the prevention of pesticide poisoning. Med Lav 1998; 89(S2): S91–S98.
Damalas CA, Georgiou EB, Theodorou MG. Pesticide use and safety practices among Greek tobacco farmers: A survey. Int J Enrivon Health Res 2006; 16(5): 339–348. doi: 10.1080/09603120600869190.
Gatto MP, Cabella R, Gherardi M. Climate change: the potential impact on occupational exposure to pesticides. Ann Ist Super Sanità 2016; 52(3): 374–385. doi: 10.4415/ANN_16_03_09.
Salvatore AL, Bradman A, Castorina R, Camacho J, López J, Barr DB, Snyder J, Jewell NP, Eskenazi B.. Occupational behaviors and farmworkers' pesticide exposure: Findings from a study in Monterey county, California. Am J Ind Med 2008; 51(10): 782–794. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20622.
Yassin MM, Abu Mourad TA, Safi JM. Knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use among farm workers in the Gaza Strip. Occup Environ Med 2002; 59(6): 387–394. doi: 10.1136/oem.59.6.387.
Zyoud SH, Sawalha AF, Sweileh WM, Awang R, Al-Khalil SI, Al-Jabi SW, Bsharat NM.. Knowledge and practices of pesticide use among farm workers in the West Bank, Palestine: safety implications. Environ Health Prev Med 2010; 15(4): 252–261. doi: 10.1007/s12199-010-0136-3.
Phillips MR, Yang G, Zhang Y, Wang L, Ji H, Zhou M. Risk factors for suicide in China: a national case-control psychological autopsy study. Lancet 2002; 360(9347): 1728–1736. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11681-3.
Agnolin C, Ioriatti C, Pontalti M, Venturelli MB. IFP experiences in Trentino, Italy. Acta Hort 2000; 525: 45–50. doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2000.525.3.
Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA). [National Report on water-borne pesticides, data 2013-2014], 2016 http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/files/pubblicazioni/rapporti/rapporto-244/Rapporto_244_2016.pdf. Accessed August 16, 2017 (Italian)
Mohanty MK, Behera BK, Jena SK, Srikanth S, Mogane C, Samal S, Behera AA. Knowledge attitude and practice of pesticide use among agricultural workers in Puducherry, South India. J Forensic Leg Med 2013; 20(8): 1028–1031. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2013.09.030.
Recena MCP, Caldas ED, Pires DX, Pontes ERJC. Pesticides exposure in Culturama, Brazil—Knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Environ Res 2006; 102(2): 230–236. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.01.007
Betsch C, Wicker S. Personal attitudes and misconceptions, not official recommendations guide occupational physicians’ vaccination decisions. Vaccine 2014; 32(35): 4478–4484. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.06.046
Riccò M, Cattani S, Veronesi L, Colucci E. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of construction workers towards tetanus vaccine in Northern Italy. Ind Health 2016; 54(6): 554–564. doi: 10.2486/indhealth.2015-0249.
Zingg A, Siegrist M. Measuring people's knowledge about vaccination: Developing a one-dimensional scale. Vaccine 2012; 30(25): 3771–3777. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.03.014.
Mekonnen Y, Agonafir T. Pesticide sprayers’ knowledge, attitude and practice of pesticide use on agricultural farms of Ethiopia. Occup Med 2002; 52: 311–315. doi: 10.1093/occmed/52.6.311
Oliveira Pasiani J, Torres P, Roniery Silva J, Diniz BZ, Dutra Caldas E. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Biomonitoring of Farmers and Residents Exposed to Pesticides in Brazil. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2012; 9(9): 3051–3068. doi: 10.3390/ijerph9093051
Ngowi AV, Mbise TJ, Ijani ASM, London L, Ajayi OC. Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania. Crop Prot 2007; 26(11): 1617–1624. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2007.01.008.
Rao P, Gentry AL, Quandt SA, Davis SW, Snively BM, Arcury TA. Pesticide safety behaviors in Latino farmworker family households. Am J Ind Med 2006; 49(4): 271–280. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20277
Avory G, Coggon D. Determinants of safe behaviour in farmers when working with pesticides. Occup Med 1995; 44(5): 236–238. doi: 10.1093/occmed/44.5.236
Quandt SA, Hernández-Valero MA, Grzywacz JG, Hovey JD, Gonzales M, Arcury TA. Workplace, Household, and Personal Predictors of Pesticide Exposure for Farmworkers. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114(6): 943–952.
Dasgupta S, Meisner C, Wheeler D, Xuyen K, Lam NT. Pesticide poisoning of farm workers–implications of blood test results from Vietnam. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2007; 210(2): 121–132. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2006.08.006.
Zadjali Al S, Morse S, Chenoweth J, Deadman M. Personal safety issues related to the use of pesticides in agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman. Sci Total Environ 2015; 502: 457–461. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.044.
Schenker MB, Orenstein MR, Samuels SJ. Use of protective equipment among California farmers. Am J Ind Med 2002; 42(5): 455–464. doi: 10.1002/ajim.10134
Adam-Poupart A, Smargiassi A, Busque M-A, Duguay P, Fournier M, Zayed J, Labrèche F. Summer outdoor temperature and occupational heat-related illnesses in Quebec (Canada). Environ Res 2014; 134: 339–344. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.07.018
King MF, Bruner GC. Social desirability bias: A neglected aspect of validity testing. Psychol Mark 2000; 17(2): 79–103. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(200002)17:2<79::AID-MAR2>3.0.CO;2-0.
Hashemi SM, Rostami R, Hashemi MK, Damalas CA. Pesticide Use and Risk Perceptions among Farmers in Southwest Iran. Hum Ecol Risk Ass 2012; 18(2): 456–470. doi: 10.1080/10807039.2012.652472.
Oesterlund AH, Thomsen JF, Sekimpi DK, Maziina J, Racheal A, Jørs E. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda: A cross-sectional study. Afr Health Sci 2014; 14(2): 420–14. doi: 10.4314/ahs.v14i2.19.
Ngowi AV, Maeda DN, Partanen TJ. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among agricultural extension workers concerning the reduction of the adverse impact of pesticides in agricultural areas in Tanzania. Med Lav 2002; 93(4): 338–346.
Macri MC, Petriccione G, Povellato A, Pupo d'Andrea MR, Sardone R. Italian Agriculture 2010. Rome, Italian National Institute for Agricultural Economy, 2012. http://dspace.crea.gov.it/bitstream/inea/367/1/SE5-2013-4.pdf Accessed August 16, 2017