Introduction: Since it is still controversial whether-low-to moderate long-term lead below current threshold values causes neurobehavioural deficits in adults.
Methods: Fourty lead-exposed workers subjects with a mean blood lead (PbB) level of 56.4 Âµg/100ml and 40 non-lead-exposed aged matched subjects (PbB:15.4Â Âµg/100ml) with the same socio-economic background were investigated.
Participants were administered a neuropsychological tests consisting of BAMT (Branches Alternate Movements Task), FT (Finger Tapping Speed), DS (Digit Span) POMS (Profile of Mood States).
Results: The authors noted significant relationship between the exposed and the referent groups in tests mainly involving executive functions, short time memory and psycoemotional variables In addition Poisson regression test performed on single psycho-emotional factors (POMS), has allowed Pb e ZPP levels to evidence the significative influence on la Tension, Anxiety and depression.
Conclusions: The present study showed that lead exposure among adults at levels previously considered safe, results in impairment of certain cognitive abilities.
Mason LH, Harp JP ,Han DY. Pb neurotoxicity: neuropsychological effects of lead toxicity. Biomed Res Int 2014. Jan 2
Seo J, Lee BK, Jin SU, Kim YT, Ryeom HK , Lee J, Suh KJ, Kim SH, Park SJ, Jeong KS, Ham JO,Kim Y, Chang Y. Lead- induced impairments in the neural processes related to working memory function. PLos One 2014; Aug 20; 9 (8)
Sanders T , Liu Y, Buchner V, Tchounwou PB. Neurotoxic effects and biomarkers of lead exposure: a review. Rev Environ Health 2009:24 (1) 15-45.
Onalaja AO, Claudio L. Genetic susceptibility to lead poisoning. Environ Health Perspect; 2000 -108(1):23-8
Balbus-Kornfeld JM, Stewart W, Bolla LI, Schwartz BS . Cumulative exposure to inorganic lead and neurobehavioural test performance in adults: an epidemiological review 1995 . Occup Environ Med 52(1):2-12
Goodman M, La Verda N, Clarke C Foster ED, Iannuzzi J, Mandel J Neurobehavioural testing in workers occupationally exposed to lead: systematic review and meta-analysis of publications. 2002 Occup Environ Med 59 (4):217-23.
Meyer-Baron M, Seeber A . A meta analysis for neurobehavioural results due to occupational lead exposure with blood lead concentrantions<70 microg/100ml-Arch 2000Toxicol 73(10-11): 510-518
Chertkow H, Massoud F, Nasreddine Z, Belleville S, Joanette Y, Bocti C, Drolet V, Kirk J, Freedman M, Bergman H. . Diagnosis and treatment of dementia: Mild cognitive impairment and cognitive impairment without dementia. 2008 CMAJ. May 6;178(10):1273-85.
) Weisskopf MG, Proctor SP, Wright RO, Schwartz J, Spiro A 3rd and Sparrow D . Cumulative lead exposure and cognitive performance among elderly men, 2007 Epidemiology 18: 59â66.
) Basha MR, Murali M, Siddiqi HK, Ghosal K, Siddiqi OK and Lashuel HA . Lead (Pb) exposure and its effect on APP proteolysis and Abeta aggregation, 2005 FASEB J 19: 2083â2084.
Bolin CM, Basha R, Cox D, Zawia NH, Maloney B and Lahiri DK . Exposure to lead and the developmental origin of oxidative DNA damage in the aging brain, 2006 FASEB J 20: 788â790.
Wu J, Basha MR, Brock B, Cox DP, Cardozo-Pelaez F and McPherson CA. Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology in aged monkeys after infantile exposure to environmental metal lead (Pb): evidence for a developmental origin and environmental link for AD, 2008 J Neurosci 28: 3â9.
Navas-Acien A, Guallar E, Silbergeld EK and Rothenberg SJ. . Lead exposure and cardiovascular diseaseâa systematic review. 2007 Environ Health Perspect 115: 472â482.
Vaziri ND. Mechanisms of lead-induced hypertension and cardiovascular disease. 2008. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295: 454â465.
Vaziri ND and Gonick HC. Cardiovascular effects of lead exposure. 2008. Indian J Med Res 128: 426â435
Patterson C, Feightner JW, Garcia A, Hsiung GY, MacKnight C and Sadovnick AD. Diagnosis and treatment of dementia: 1. Risk assessment and primary prevention of Alzheimer disease, 2008 CMAJ 178: 548â556.
Reddy GR, Devi B. and Chetty CS. Developmental lead neurotoxicity: alterations in brain cholinergic system, 2007 Neurotoxicology 28:. 402â407.
Wang L, Luo L, LuoYY, GuY, Ruan DY. Effects of Pb on muscarinic modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal CA1 area. 2007 Neurotoxicology.28:499-507
Wechsler D. WAIS - Scala dâIntelligenza Wechsler per Adulti . 1999 Organizzazioni Speciali Firenze
McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF. POMS- Profile of Mood States. 1991 Organizzazioni Speciali Firenze
ACGIH. Cincinnati: 2007. TL VsÂ® and BEIs
Lebel J, Mergler D, Branches F, Lucotte M, Amorim M, Larribe F, Dolbec J. Neurotoxic effects of low-level methylmercury contamination in the Amazonian Basin. 1998 Environ Res 79: 20â32.
Pesarin F . Multivariate Permutation Test. 2001 Wiley.
Griffin D, Gonzalez R.1 Correlational analysis of dyad-level data in the exchangeable case. 1995 Psychological Bulletin 118: 430-439.
Kleinbaum DG. Logistic Regression, 1994 Springer.
Mc Cullagh P, Nelder JA. Generalized Linear Models, 1989 Second Edition, Chapman and Hall CRC, USA.
Mantere P, Haenninen H, Hernberg S, Luukonen R. A prospective follow-up study on psychological effects in workers exposed to low levels of lead. 1984 Scan J of Environ Health 10: 43-50
Stollery BT, Broadbent DE, Banks HA, Lee WR . Cognitive functioning in lead workers. 1989 Br J Ind Med 46: 698-707
Maizlish NA, Parra G, Feo O. Neurobehavioural evaluation of Venezuelan workers exposed to inorganic lead. 1995 Occup Environ Med. 52: 408-14.
Lindgren KN, Masten VL, Ford DP, Bleecker ML. Relation of cumulative exposure to inorganic lead and neuropsychological test performance 1996 Occup Environ Med 53: 472-477
Wilson RS, Barnes LL, Mendes de Leon CF, Aggarwal NT, Schneider JS, Bach J, Pilat J, Beckett LA, Arnold SE, Evans DA, Bennett DA. Depressive symptoms, cognitive decline, and risk of AD in older persons. 2002 Neurology 59: 364-70
Shih RA, Hu H, Weisskopf MG and Schwartz BS. Cumulative lead dose and cognitive function in adults: a review of studies that measured both blood lead and bone lead, 2007 Environ Health Perspect 115: 483â492.
Weuve J, Korrick SA, Weisskopf MA, Ryan LM, Schwartz J and Nie H . Cumulative exposure to lead in relation to cognitive function in older women, 2009 Environ Health Perspect 117: 574â580.
White LD, Cory-Slechta DA, Gilbert ME, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Zawia NH and Virgolini M . New and evolving concepts in the neurotoxicology of lead, 2007 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 225: 1â27.
Pratico D. Oxidative stress hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease: a reappraisal. 2008. Trends Pharmacol Sci 29: 609â615.
Ahamed M and Siddiqui MK. Low level lead exposure and oxidative stress: current opinions, 2007 Clin Chim Acta 383: 57â64.
Rohlman DS, Lucchini R, Anger WK, Bellinger DC, van Thriel C. Neurobehavioral testing in human risk assessment. 2008 Neurotoxicology. 29(3):556-67.
Murata K, Iwata T, Dakeishi M, Karita K. Lead toxicity: does the critical level of lead resulting in adverse effects differ between adults and children. 2009 J Occup Health.51(1):1-12.
Bressler J, Kim KA, Chakraborti T, Goldstein G. Molecular mechanism of lead neurotoxicity. 1999 Neurochem. Res. 24: 595-600