Dietary supplements for the management of COVID-19 symptoms


Dietary supplement


SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19, caused a pandemic in 2020, which is only recently slowing down. The symptoms of COVID-19 range from cough to fever and pneumonia and may persist beyond the active state of the infection, in a condition called post-COVID syndrome. The aim of this paper is to review the relationship between COVID-19 and nutrition and to discuss to most up-to-date dietary supplements proposed for COVID-19 treatment and prevention. Nutrition and nutritional dysregulations, such as obesity and malnutrition, are prominent risk factors for severe COVID-19. These factors exert anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory effects on the immune system, thus exacerbating or reducing the immunological response against the virus. As for the nutritional habits, the Western diet induces a chronic inflammatory state, whereas the Mediterranean diet exerts anti-inflammatory effects and has been proposed for ameliorating COVID-19 evolution and symptoms. Several vaccines have been researched and commercialized for COVID-19 prevention, whereas several drugs, although clinically tested, have not shown promising effects. To compensate for the lack of treatment, several supplements have been recommended for preventing or ameliorating COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, it is critical to review the dietary supplements proposed for COVID-19 treatment. Supplements containing α-cyclodextrin and hydroxytyrosol exhibited promising effects in several clinical trials and reduced the severity of the outcomes and the duration of the infection. Moreover, a supplement containing hydroxytyrosol, acetyl L-carnitine, and vitamins B, C, and D improved the symptoms of patients with post-COVID syndrome.


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