Relationship between dietary energy intake, nutritional status and cardiovascular risk in adults from the communes of Quellón and Chonchi, Chiloé, Chile


dietary energy intake;
malnutrition by excess;
nutritional adequacy of the diet;
chronic diseases
cardiovascular risk


Introduction: Behavioural and metabolic risk factors are responsible for the greatest burden of disease; an unhealthy diet, along with abdominal obesity, are risk factors related to Non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Methods: Data concerning food patterns were determined by the application of an interview-type instrument, used to assess the daily and weekly frequency of consumption; cardiovascular risk was assessed using waist circumference, and nutritional status via Body Mass Index. Student's t test was applied to evaluate the differences between variables and the Pearson's chi-square test for the association of variables. Results: Dietary energy intake (kcal/capita/day) was 3000 kcal, with an average distribution of 12.2% (proteins), 46.9% (carbohydrates), and 40.9% (total fats). The 78% of the sample suffered from malnutrition by excess. About 37.5% had Non-Communicable Diseases, with high blood pressure being the most frequent disease among both genders, with the highest prevalence among women, along with diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. Depending on the nutritional status, the presence of obesity is associated with high cardiovascular risk (p=0.000), greater energy availability (p=0.012), and an increased occurrence of non-communicable diseases (p=0.004). Conclusions: Malnutrition by excess figures support the global alert for obesity and overweight, which are considered to be a pandemic; in addition, Chiloé is not immune to the increasing trend of processed and ultra-processed food consumption.


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