Tuberculosis is a serious respiratory infectious disease, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. It has always represented a permanent, serious public health challenge over the course of human history, because of its severe epidemiological, clinical and societal implications. The present review aims at over-viewing the contributions of the Iranian medicine to the control, management and treatment of tuberculosis, from the glorious past of the eighty-ninth centuries to the present, from Ali Abu al-Hasan Ahmad ibn Sahl-e Rabban al-Tabari to Rhazes, Avicenna, Jorjani and Abolhassan Ziyā-Zarifi. However, despite the efforts, tuberculosis and, in particular, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis still represents a great public health concern in Iran. On the other hand, this country can capitalize on its millennial, incredibly rich story of major achievements in the battle against tuberculosis to develop and implement ad hoc public health programs for the control of the disorder, including targeted and specialized interventions.
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