Introduction: Food contamination with Listeria monocytogenes is on the increase posing threats to public health with growing trends in food products recalls due to suspected Listeria contamination.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) among 71 randomly selected poultry farms in Oyo State, Nigeria. A total of 450 samples comprising cloacal swabs (426) and randomly selected dressed chicken meat (24) were cultured for Lm isolation using BrillianceTM Selective Listeria Agar with antibiotics and microbial load count with Nutrient Agar. Further identification was done using microscopic, biochemical characterization and antibiotic sensitivity tests. Data were analysed using bivariate analysis and student t-test.
Results: An overall prevalence of 91.8% Lm contamination was obtained comprising 91.5% (390/426) in cloacal swabs and 95.8% (23/24) in meat. The prevalence of Lm in cloacal samples was significantly associated with poultry type (p =0.008) and breed (p=0.000.Â In addition, all the flocks had at least one positive sample yielding 100% flock prevalence. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that most of the isolates were resistant to common antibiotics like Ampiclox and Zinnacef.
Discussion: The results revealed a high level of contamination with Lm in the poultry flock and meat and the observed resistance to most common antibiotics has implications for future disease control as well as public health. There is need to step up routine screening of food animal products for Listeria contamination as well as measures towards reducing such contaminations.
Perrins C. The Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Buffalo, N.Y., Firefly Books, Ltd, 2003.
Gasanov U, Hughes D, Hansbro P. Methods for isolation and identification of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes: a review. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2005; 29: 851-75.
Jeyaletchumi P, Tunung, R, Margaret SP, et al. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods: review article. Int. Food Res J 2010; 17: 1-11.
Talaro-Talaro. Foundations in microbiology. 4th Edition, 2002.
Kayser A, Jan W, Volker H, et al. Metabolic flux analysis of Escherichia coli in glucose-limited continuous culture. I. Growth-rate dependent metabolic efficiency at steady state. Biochemical Engineering Division, GBF â National Research Centre for Biotechnology, Mascheroder Weg 1, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany 2005; 151: 693-706.
Graves LM, Helsel LO, Steigerwalt AG, et al. Listeria marthii sp. Nov., isolated from the Listeria marthii sp. Nov., isolated from the natural environment. Finger Lakes National Forest. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2010; 60: 1280-88.
Leclercq A, Clermont D, Bizet C, et al. Listeria rocourtiae sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol 2010; 60: 2210-14.
Chodorowska M, Kuklinska D. Czynnki wirulencji Listeria monocytogene oraz patogeneza obraz kliniczny i antybiotykoterpia listeriozy. Post Mikrobiol 2002; 41: 37-49.
Centre for Disease Control. National Enteric Disease Surveillance: Listeria. Annual Summary, 2008
Huss HH, Reilly A, Embarek PKB. Prevention and control of hazards in seafood. Food Control 2000; 11: 149-56.
Jones AD, Seeliger HPR. The Genus Listeria.In: Prokaryotes: a handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications. 2nd Ed. 1992; 1595-616.
Jeyasekan G, Karunasagar J. Effect of sanitizers on Listeria biofilm on contact surfaces. Asian Fisheries Sci 2000; 13: 209-13.
Todar K. Listeria monocytogenes Gram stain as seen in a light microscope. 2004. http://ltc.nutes.ufrj.br/constructore/objetos/Todar-microbiology.pdf
Mafu AA, Roy D, Goulet J, et al. Attachment of Listeria monocytogenes to stainless steel, glass, polypropylene, and rubber surfaces after short contact times. J. Food Prot 1990; 53:742-6.
Ryser ET, Arimi SM, Bunduki MM, et al. Recovery of different Listeria ribotypes from naturally contaminated, raw refrigerated meat and poultry products with two primary enrichment media. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996; 62:1781â7.
Schelech WF, Lavigne PM, Borlolussi RA, et al. Epidemic listeriosis: evidence for transmission by foods. N Engl J Med 1983; 308:203-6.
Kuhn M, Goebel W. Molecular virulence determinants of Listeria monocytogenes. In: Ryser ET, Marth EH, eds. Listeria, listeriosis and food safety. 3rd ed, CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton 2007; 111â55.
Sergeant ES, Love SC, McInnes A. Abortions in sheep due to Listeria ivanovii. Aust Vet J 1991; 68(1): 39.
Chand P, Sadana JR. Outbreak of Listeria ivanovii abortion in sheep in India. Vet Rec 1999; 145(3):83-4.
Slutsker L, Schuchat A. Listeriosis in humans. In: Listeria, Listeriosis and food safety. eds ET Ryser and EH Marth 1999; 75-95. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Hirsh DC, Zee YC. Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Publishing 1999; 543-9.
Gibbons I, Adesiyun A, Seepersadsingh N, et al. Investigation for possible source(s) of contamination of ready-to-eat meat products with Listeria species and other pathogens in a meat processing plant in Trinidad. Food Microbiol 2006; 23(4):359-66.
Indrawattana N, Nibaddhasobon T, Sookrung N, et al. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw meats marketed in Bangkok and characterization of the isolates by phenotypic and molecular methods. J Health, Popul Nutr 2011; 29(1): 26 - 38.
Horsley RW. A review of bacterial flora of teleosts and elasmobranches, including methods for its analysis. J. Fish Biol 1977; 10: 529-33.
APHA. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water/ Waste water. APHA-AWWA-
WPCF, 1995; Washington D. C. 20036.
Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherris JC, et al. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Amer Int Clin Pathol 1966; 45: 493-6.
EC. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union 2005.
Gaffa T, Ayo JA. Innovations in the traditional Kunun zaki production process. Pak J Nutr 2002; 1: 202-5.
Chukwu COO, Ogbonna CIC, Olabode AO, et al. Listeria monocytogenes in Nigerian processed meats and ready to eat dairy products. Niger J Microbiol 2006; 20(1): 900-4.
Nwachukwu NC, Orji FA, Amaike JI. Isolation and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from kunu, a locally produced beverage marketed in different markets in Abia State of Nigeria. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2009; 3(4): 4432-6.
Gravani R. Incidence and control of Listeria in food-processing facilities. In: Ryser ET, Marth EH, eds. Listeria, Listeriosis and food safety. 1999; pp. 657â709. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Salihu MD, Junaidu AU, Manga SB, et al. Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in smoked fish in Sokoto, Nigeria. Afri J Biotechnol 2008; 7 (17): 3082-4.
Omoruyi IM, Wogu MD, Eraga EM. Bacteriological quality of beef-contact surfaces, airmicroflora and wastewaters from major abattoirs located in Benin City, Southern Nigeria. Int J Biosci 2011; 1(3): 57-62.
Okonko IO, Adejoye OD, Ogunnusi TA, et al. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of different water samples used for domestic purposes in Abeokuta and Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. Afri J Biotech 2008; 7(3): 617-21.
Cox NA, Bailey JS, Berrang ME. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the integrated poultry industry. J Appl Poultry Res 1997; 6: 116-119.
Kanarat S, Jitnupong W, Sukhapesna J. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Chicken Production Chain in Thailand. Thai J Vet Med 2011; 41(2): 155-61.
Aury K, Le Bouquin S, Toquin MT, et al. Risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French laying hens and broiler flocks. Prev Vet Med 2011; 98: 271â8.
Beloeil PA, Chauvin C, Toquin MT, et al. Listeria monocytogenes contamination of finishing pigs: an exploratory epidemiological survey in France. Vet Res 2003; 34: 737â48.
Adetunji VO, Ishola TO. Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli, Listeria and SaLmonella isolates from retail meat tables in Ibadan municipal abattoir, Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol 2011; 10(30): 5795-9.
David OM, Odeyemi AT. Antibiotic resistance pattern of environmental isolates of Listeria monocytogenes from Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol 2007; 6(18): 2135-9.
Ennaji H, Timinouni M, Ennaji M, et al. Characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from poultry and red meat in Morocco. J Infect Drug Resist 2008; 1: 45â50.
Ndahi MD, Kwaga JKP, Bello M, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from raw
meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria. Letters in Appl Microbiol 2013; 58: 262-9.
Lungu B, OâBryan CA, Muthaiyan A, et al. Listeria monocytogenes: antibiotic resistance in food production. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2011; 8: 569â78.
Bockserman R. 2000. Listeria monocytogenes: Recognized threat to food safety. Food Qual. Mag. www.Fqmagazine.com.
Skovgaard N, Morgen CA. Detection of Listeria spp. in faeces from animals, in feeds, and in raw foods of animal origin. Int J Food Microbiol 1988; 6: 229-42.
Larpent JP. ListÃ©ria. Tec and Doc, Lavoisier, Paris. pp.165.
Chiarini E, Tyler K, Farber JM, et al. Listeria monocytogenes in two different poultry facilities: Manual and automatic evisceration. Poultry Sc 2009; 88(4):791-7. doi: 10.3382/ps.2008-00396.