Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated as one of the principal causes of cervical cancer, which is the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the presence of HPV DNA in abnormal cervical cytology of a group of women who were screened using Papanicolaou staining technique.
Methodology: A total of 200 women attending the Obstetrics and Gyneacology clinic of Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti were screened using the convectional Pap smear screening, while positive samples were subjected to molecular analyses using DNA isolation techniques and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Result: Results revealed that 14 (7%) of the subjects were positive for abnormal cytology. Abnormalities found among the subjects included; low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) which constituted 50 % of the total abnormal smears, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) which were 28.6% and 21.4% respectively. Results of molecular analyses showed that all the samples from abnormal cervical cytology subjected to HPV DNA extraction and gene amplification all contained the HPV DNA.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of HPV DNA in abnormal cytology, gives credence to the fact that HPV presence is a critical indicator in the development of cervical cancer, thus more efforts should be put into vaccine production and distribution to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer in NigeriaÂ
Keywords: Cervical, cytology, DNA, molecular, women
Organization WH. Country Strategy: Federal Republic on Nigeria 2002-2007, WHO, Regional office for Africa. Brazzaville: 2008. Available from: http://www.who.int/countries/nga/about/ccs_strategy02_07.pdf [Google Scholar]
Parkin DM, Pisani P, Brary F. The global health burden of infection associated cancer. International and Journal Cancer 2006;118(12):3030-14. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ijc.21731 doi: 10.1002/ijc.21731. [Google Scholar]
Timmons B, Akins M, Mahendroo M. Cervical remodeling during pregnancy and parturition. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 2010;21(6):353-361. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1043276010000251 PubMed PMID: 24189143. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2010.01.011. [Google Scholar]
Munoz N, Franceschi S, Bosetti C, et al. International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicentric Cervical Cancer Study G Role of parity and human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: the IARC multicentric case control study. Lancet 2002;359(9312):1093-1101. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140673602081515 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08151-5. [Google Scholar]
Kjaer SK, Chackerian B, Brule, van den , et al. High-risk human papillomavirus is sexually transmitted: evidence from a follow-up study of virgins starting sexual activity (intercourse. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 2001;10(2):101-6. Available from: http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11219765 PubMed PMID: 11219765. [Google Scholar]
Clifford GM. Gallus S, Herrero R et al. Worldwide distribution of human papillomavirus types in cytologically normal women in the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV prevalence surveys: Lancet 2005;366(9490):991-998. Available from: http://ClinicalTrials.gov/search/term=16168781%20%5BPUBMED-IDS%5D PubMed PMID: 16168781. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67069-9. [Google Scholar]
Obaseki DE. and Nwafor CC Cervical Cancer Screening In Benin City, South-South Nigeria. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 2013;5(1):16-19. Available from: http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jdms/papers/Vol5-issue1/E0511619.pdf doi: 10.9790/0853-0511619. [Google Scholar]
Sharifah N, Seeni A. Nurismah MI et al .Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Abnormal Cervical Smears in Malaysian Patients. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2009;10(2):303-306. Available from: http://www.apocpcontrol.org/page/apjcp_issues_view.php?sid=Entrez:PubMed&id=pmid:19537900&key=2009.10.2.303 PubMed PMID: 19537900. [Google Scholar]