Dental caries, oral hygiene status and deleterious habits among migrant construction workers of Belagavi, India


Dental caries
Occupational Health
oral health
Oral hygiene


Background: Occupation significantly influences oral health, with factors like the work environment, stress levels, access to dental care, and job-related habits playing crucial roles. The oral health of construction workers, especially migrant workers, is a noteworthy concern. Understanding the oral health of this population is crucial for enhancing their quality of life through various means. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene status, and deleterious habits in this occupational group of Belagavi district, Karnataka.

Materials and Methods: Study design was cross-sectional in nature. After a pilot study, multi-stage random sampling technique was employed, and 610 participants were recruited. Trained and calibrated examiners recorded WHO dentition status and treatment needs (2013) and Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S). Collected data was analyzed using descriptive analysis, chi-square, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression analysis.

Results: Prevalence of dental caries among construction workers was significantly higher (81%) and 36.9% had poor oral hygiene. Prevalence of smoking, tobacco chewing habit, and alcohol consumption among the construction workers was found to be 21.6%, 59.9%, and 37.3%, respectively. The dependence of OHI-S and DMFT on age, gender, and habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, and alcohol consumption was found to be 21.5% and 39.6%, respectively.

Conclusion: Migrant construction workers in Belagavi had a high caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene status, and a high prevalence of deleterious habits such as tobacco use. These results emphasize the necessity of awareness and dental health education programs to improve the oral health of construction workers.


Santhosh VN, Ankola A, Sankeshwari R, Jalihal S, Varghese AS, Chavan P, et al. Impact of dental caries and periodontal disease on oral health-related quality of life among the Karnataka State Reserve Police Personnel in Belagavi, India. J Prev Med Hyg. 2023;64:E78–86.

Spanemberg JC, Cardoso JA, Slob EMGB, López-López J. Quality of life related to oral health and its impact in adults. J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019;120:234–9.

Gil-Montoya JA, de Mello ALF, Barrios R, Gonzalez-Moles MA, Bravo M. Oral health in the elderly patient and its impact on general well-being: a nonsystematic review. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;10:461–7.

N S V, Vas R, Uppala H, Vas NV, Jalihal S, Ankola AV, et al. Dental caries, oral hygiene status and treatment needs of fishermen and non-fishermen population in South Goa, India. Int Marit Health. 2022;73:125–32.

Ghasemi H, Darmohammadi R, Namdari M, Ghorbani Z. Oral health outcomes and shift working among male workers: A cross-sectional survey. PLOS ONE. 2022;17:e0275924.

Greenspan D. Xerostomia: diagnosis and management. Oncol Williston Park N. 1996;10 3 Suppl:7–11.

Tiwary G, Gangopadhyay PK. A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2011;15:18–24.

Aktas E, Bergbom B, Godderis L, Kreshpaj B, Marinov M, Mates D, et al. Migrant workers occupational health research: an OMEGA-NET working group position paper. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2022;95:765–77.

World Statistic. 2011. Accessed 14 Oct 2023.

Safety training for migrant workers in the construction industry: A systematic review and future research agenda - PubMed. Accessed 14 Oct 2023.

Ali AK, Mohammed A, Thomas AA, Paul S, Shahul M, Kasim K. Tobacco Abuse and Associated Oral Lesions among Interstate Migrant Construction Workers. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2017;18:695–9.

India - Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2016. Accessed 14 Oct 2023.

Oral health surveys: basic methods - 5th edition. Accessed 27 Jun 2022.

Greene JC, Vermillion JR. THE SIMPLIFIED ORAL HYGIENE INDEX. J Am Dent Assoc 1939. 1964;68:7–13.

Suresh S, Doraikannan S, Jayakumar ND, Indiran MA, Kesavan R. Working hours impact on the sleep quality and oral health status among migrant construction workers in Chennai. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2022;11:3511.

Anil Raj. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of Immigrant Construction Workers in Chennai City: A Cross Sectional Survey. masters. Ragas Dental College and Hospital, Chennai; 2016.

[PDF] Periodontal health status and treatment needs among building construction workers in Chennai , India | Semantic Scholar. Accessed 11 Nov 2023.

Sanadhya S, Nagarajappa R, Sharda AJ, Asawa K, Tak M, Batra M, et al. The oral health status and the treatment needs of salt workers at sambhar lake, jaipur, India. J Clin Diagn Res JCDR. 2013;7:1782–6.


Ansari ZA, Bano SN, Zulkifle M. Prevalence of Tobacco Use Among Power Loom Workers - A Cross-Sectional Study. Indian J Community Med Off Publ Indian Assoc Prev Soc Med. 2010;35:34–9.

Aslesh OP, Paul S, Paul L, Jayasree AK. High Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Associated Oral Mucosal Lesion Among Interstate Male Migrant Workers in Urban Kerala, India. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2015;8:e3876.

Mou J, Fellmeth G, Griffiths S, Dawes M, Cheng J. Tobacco smoking among migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China. Nicotine Tob Res Off J Soc Res Nicotine Tob. 2013;15:69–76.

(PDF) Dental Health among Green Marble Mine Laborers, India. Accessed 2 Dec 2023.

Workplace based Potentially Malignant Oral Lesions Screening among Tobacco Consuming Migrant Construction Site Workers in Chennai, South India: A Pilot Study - PubMed. Accessed 2 Dec 2023.

Zabeer S, Inbaraj LR, George CE, Norman G. Quality of life among migrant construction workers in Bangalore city: A cross-sectional study. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2019;8:437–42.

World Cancer Report. Accessed 2 Dec 2023.

Welfare Schemes | Delhi Building and Other Construction Workers Welfare Board. Accessed 2 Dec 2023.

Various Welfare Benefits for Registered Construction Workers | Labour Welfare | Government Of Assam, India. Accessed 2 Dec 2023.

Mesmar HSA, John S. Overview of oral and dental healthcare in Dubai health authority: status, gaps, and initiatives, 2016-2021. Int J Sci Rep. 2023;9:267–72.