Hand hygiene with Interventions: An Observational Study from a Tertiary Care Institute over 2 years.


Hand hygiene
Adherence rate
World health organization
Intensive care unit


Background - Appropriate adherence to hand hygiene (HH) practices by health care workers (HCWs) reduces the transmission of pathogens and subsequently the incidence of hospital acquired infections (HAIs), in health care settings. Strict monitoring and auditing of this simple and cost-effective intervention is very important, as it significantly contributes in reducing the HAIs.

Material & Methods – A retrospective observational study, evaluating the HH audits from June 2021 till May 2023 in a tertiary health care facility in North India. HH audits were conducted in the ICUs and wards daily, by the trained infection control nurses (ICNs), using direct observation method based on World health organization (WHO) hand hygiene observational forms. HH total adherence (HHTAR), partial adherence (HHPAR) and complete adherence rate (HHCAR) were analyzed in Microsoft Excel sheet. HHTAR rates were compared among different profession, moments and the month wise trend was also observed over the period.

Results –A total of 24,740 HH opportunities were observed.  The compliance rate for HHCAR, HHPAR and HHTAR were 20.3%, 41.5% and 61.4% respectively. Overall better compliance was reported from the ICUs, profession-specific compliance was highest among nurses (62.8%) and doctors (61.5%). Significant increase in adherence rate was appreciated post intervention 46.1% to 67.3%, (p value <0.01).

Conclusion – Continuous monitoring and reinforcement with timely feedback for intervention and regular auditing is a necessity to improve and maintain the appropriate HH practices among the HCWs. Low- and middle-income countries need to focus more on this simple and promising measure to combat the increasing HAI rates.




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