Risk perception, knowledge about SARS-CoV-2, and perception towards preventive measures in Italy: a nationwide cross-sectional study


risk perception
preventive measures


Introduction: After COVID-19 outbreak, governments adopted several containment measures. Risk perception and knowledge may play a crucial role since they can affect compliance with preventive measures. This study aimed to explore the extent and the associated factors of risk perception, knowledge regarding SARS-CoV2, and perception towards preventive measures among the Italian population.

Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional study involving adults was conducted in April-May 2021: an online survey was distributed through social media. The outcomes were: Knowledge Score (KS) (0 to 100%: higher scores correspond to higher COVID-19-related knowledge); Risk Perception Score (RPS) (1 to 4: higher values indicate higher concern); Preventive measures Perception Score (PPS) (1 to 4: higher values indicate higher confidence). Multivariable regression models were performed.

Results: A total of 1120 participants were included. Median KS was 79.5%  (IQR=72.7%-86.4%). Lower education and poor economic conditions were negatively associated with the KS.  Median RPS was 2.8 (IQR=2.4-3.2). Female gender, sharing house with a fragile person, suffering from a chronic disease, having a family member/close friend who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection were positively associated with the RPS. Median PPS was 3.1 (IQR=2.8-3.4). Lower educational level was negatively associated with the PPS. Vaccine hesitancy was negatively associated with all three outcomes. The three scores were positively associated with each other.

Conclusions: Fair levels of knowledge, risk perception and perception towards preventive measures were reported. Reciprocal relationships between the outcomes and a relevant relationship with vaccine hesitancy were highlighted. Further investigations should be focused on studying underlying determinants and consequences.



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