The role of mediterranean diet and gut microbiota in type- diabetes mellitus associated with obesity (diabesity)


Mediterranean diet
Gut Microbiota
Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus


The human body is made up of 10¹⁴ human cells and 10¹⁵ bacterial cells, forming a combined structure that is described as a “superorganism”. Commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms in the human body, many of which are located inside the intestine, affect health conditions and diseases. An important factor contributing to the development of chronic diseases is dysbiosis, which occurs when the number of pathogenic microorganisms increases. Dysbiosis is associated with increased intestinal permeability, endotoxemia (increased LPS), pro-inflammatory cytokine release, energy harvest, and adiposity, thus being involved in the pathogenesis of disorders like diabetes and obesity. Nutritional habits are the most important environmental factor that affects intestinal microbial composition. A dietary pattern that was proven successful in regulating gut microbiota is the renowned Mediterranean diet, which is characterized by high plant-based foods consumption, moderate fish and dairy products consumption, and low red meat consumption. There is an inverse relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and chronic diseases like obesity and diabetes. In addition to the direct effects of the Mediterranean diet on the pathogenesis of these diseases, it can also be effective in preventing these diseases due to its effects on the intestinal microbiota. It is noted that the number of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides increases the longer one’s eating habit adhere to the Mediterranean diet, and the number of Firmicutes decreases, accordingly, thus supporting the symbiotic distribution in the intestinal microbiota.


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