Environmental sanitation and hygiene of elderly workers in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand


Elderly workers
Housing Sanitation
Food Sanitation
Water Sanitation
Indoor Air Quality


Introduction: Thailand will become a complete aged society in 2021 and a super-aged society in 2030, resulting in a high proportion of older people. Living environments, especially at home, play an essential health determinant for the elders.

Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study evaluated 319 households in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province according to the standard of housing sanitation for elders and assessed biological contamination in food, water, and indoor air in the homes.

Results: The housing assessment results revealed some issues that are necessary to be improved, i.e., the wet and dry areas in bathrooms were not separated (89.4%), there was no anti-slip sheet in the bathrooms (97.2%), and handrails were not suitably installed (92.8%). The proportion of coliform bacteria contamination in the samples of elderly hand, dish, spoon, cooked rice, side dish, and drinking water was 78.4%, 82.1%, 88.3%, 93.4%, and 97.5%, respectively. The average total bacteria count in bedrooms and kitchens was 110 CFU/m3 and 148 CFU/m3, respectively. The average total fungi count was 82 CFU/m3 in bedrooms and 92 CFU/m3 in kitchens. Most indoor air quality parameters complied with the standards.

Conclusions:  Significant health risks for the elderly workers while living at home were injuries due to slipping fall in the house, especially in the bathroom, as well as foodborne and waterborne diseases. The health risks should be communicated to the elders. Prevention of the risks should be performed by the cooperation of relevant government agencies and the older adults in the study area.



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