Low- and middle-income countries are experiencing a transition from a preponderance of infectious to Non-Communicable Dis- eases (NCDs). Many of the behaviours that produce these risks often commence in late adolescence. The study assessed the prev- alence and knowledge of the major risk factors for NCDs among undergraduates in Ibadan Metropolis. This was a comparative cross-sectional study using a systematic random sampling tech- nique. Data were collected using the WHO STEPs questionnaire and were entered and analysed using SPSS version 21. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and logistic regression at p < 0.05. Of 1,200 undergraduates, 646 (53.8%) were male and 1062 (88.5%) were aged 15-24 years; mean age was 20.4 (+/-3.5) years; 673 (56.1%) lived on campus. Only 3.1% of the respondents were current tobacco smokers. Also, 51.3% of respondents currently take alcohol with 11.2% classified as hav- ing excess alcohol use (> 6 standard drinks in one sitting in the last 30 days). About three quarters (70.6%) of respondents were classified as having unhealthy diets based on fruit/vegetable serv- ings per day. Only 29.3% had adequate physical activity. Moreo- ver, 48.3% were classified as having poor knowledge of the risk factors for NCDs. Overall, 99.3% of respondents had at least one behavioural risk factor. Public university undergraduates were more likely to have good knowledge of these risk factors OR 1.485 (95% CI: 1.485-2.398, p < 0.001). Behavioural risk factors for NCDs were prevalent among these undergraduates. Knowledge of NCD risk factors was average and those who attended public universities were more likely to have good knowledge of the risk factors for NCDs.
2. World Health Organization. Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2014. Available at:
3. World Health Organization. NCD mortality and morbidity 2017. Available at:
4. Prentice AM. The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Feb;35(1):93–9. PMID: 16326822 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyi272 [Accessed 18/05/2018].
5. Boutayeb A. The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in
developing countries. Transactions of the Royal society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
2006 Mar 1;100(3):191-9. PMID: 16274715 DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.07.021[Accessed 01/03/2018].
6. Kim HC, Oh SM. Noncommunicable Diseases: Current Status of Major Modifiable Risk Factors PMID: 23946874 PMCID: PMC3740221 DOI: 10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.165
in Korea 2013:165–72. [Accessed 20/04/2018].
7. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Overview of non-communicable diseases
and related risk factors. Available at : https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/healthprotection/fetp/training_modules/new-8/overview-ncds_fg_qa-review_091113.pdf. [Accessed 24/05/2018].
9. Remais J V, Zeng G, Li G, Tian L, Engelgau MM. Convergence of non-communicable and
infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2013
Feb;42(1):221–7. PMID: 23064501 PMCID: PMC3600620 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dys135 [Accessed 5/11/2018].
8. Bloom DE, Cafiero ET, Jané-Llopis E, Abrahams-Gessel S, Bloom LR, Fathima S, et al. The
Global Economic Burden of Non-communicable Diseases. Geneva; 2011. [Accessed
9. Beaglehole R, Bonita R, Horton R, Adams C, Alleyne G, Asaria P, et al. Priority actions for the non-communicable disease crisis. Lancet. 2011;377(9775):1438–47. [Accessed 18/05/2018].
10. WHO. WHO | NCD and Youth. WHO. World Health Organization; 2016. [Accessed
11. Clustering of behavioral risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among rural-based adolescents in south-west Nigeria. Ajibola Idowu, Adesegun O. Fatusi, Folakemi O. Olajide Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2016 Jun 14 : 10.1515/ijamh-2016-0008. Published online 2016 Jun 14. doi: 10.1515/ijamh-2016-0008 [Accessed 24/05/2018].
12. Owoaje E, Bello J. Psychoactive substance use among undergraduate students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Vol. 17, Trop. J. Health Sci. 2010. p. 56–60. [Accessed 19/01/2018].
13. Htay SS, Oo M, Yoshida Y, Harun-Or-Rashid M, Sakamoto J. Risk behaviours and associated factors among medical students and community youths in Myanmar. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2010;72(1–2):71–81. PMID 20229705 Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20229705 [Accessed 11/11/2018]
14. Awotidebe, Taofeek. (2014). An Assessment of Knowledge of Nigerian Female Undergraduates on Obesity as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease in Women. American Journal of Health Research. 2. 10.11648/j.ajhr.s.2014020501.20.2014;2:50–5. [Accessed 4/05/2018].
15. Omobuwa O, Alebiosu OC. Awareness of diabetes amongst undergraduates in a Nigerian University, South West Nigeria. Sahel Med J 2014;17: 29-33 [Accessed 24/05/2018].
16. Aliyu SU, Chiroma AS, Jajere AM, Kachalla Gujba F. Prevalence of Physical Inactivity,
Hypertension, Obesity and Tobacco Smoking: A Case of NCDs Prevention among Adults in
Maiduguri, Nigeria. Am J Med Sci Med. 2015;3(4):39–47. [Accessed 04/11/2018].
17. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smokers among undergraduates of the University of Ilorin, Nigeria. A. E. Fawibe, A. O. Shittu Niger J Clin Pract. 2011 Apr-Jun; 14(2): 201–205. doi: 10.4103/1119-3077.8401 [Accessed 3/09/2018].
18. Adekeye, Olujide & Sussan O, Adeusi & Ogbuiyi, Sussan & Chenube, & O., Olufunke & Frederick, Ahmadu & O., Frederick & Sholarin, & A., Muyiwa. (2015). Assessment of Alcohol and Substance Use among Undergraduates in Selected Private Universities in Southwest Nigeria. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 20. 1-7. 2015;20(3):1–7. [Accessed 24/06/2018].
19. WHO. Riley L, Guthold R, Cowan M, et al. The World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance: Methods, Challenges, and Opportunities. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(1):74–78. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302962 [Accessed 13/03/2018].
20. WHO. Chapter 3-Monitoring NCDs and their risk factors: a framework for surveillance. In:
WHO Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases. 2010. p. 41–5. [Accessed
21. Ichiho HM, Anson R, Keller E, Lippwe K, Aitaoto N. An assessment of non-communicable diseases, diabetes, and related risk factors in the Federated States of Micronesia, State of Pohnpei: a systems perspective. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2013;72(5 Suppl 1):49–56.; [Accessed 24/09/2018].
22. Deliens T, Clarys P, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions. BMC Public Health
2014; 14:53. PMID: 24438555 PMCID: PMC3905922 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-53 [Accessed 27/11/2018].
23. Otemuyiwa IO, Adewusi SRA. Food choice and meal consumption pattern among
undergraduate students in two universities in Southwestern Nigeria. Nutr Health
2012;21:233–45.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620005 [Accessed 24/12/2018].
24. Yadiyal A, Mittal S, Shenoy N, Chopra A, Mitra P, Post , et al. Tobacco use among
undergraduates of a private medical college in Mangalore- Knowledge, Attitude and Practice.
Int J Sci Res Publ. 2015 ;5(8). [Accessed 7/06/2018].
25. Cigarette Smoking Practices and Its Determinants Among University Students in Southwest,
Nigeria. OA Babatunde & OE Elegbede & LM Ayodele & OA Atoyebi & DO Ibirongbe & AO Adeagbo, 2012. Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 2(2), pages 62-69, February. [Accessed 7/06/2018].
26. Risk behaviours and associated factors among medical students and community youths in Myanmar. Nagoya J. Med. Sci 2010 Feb;72(1-2):71-81. Htay SS1, Oo M, Yoshida Y, Harun-Or-Rashid M, Sakamoto J [Accessed 7/06/2018].
27. Adebayo E, Omotade O, Olumide A, Adewale A. Association between social capital and
alcohol consumption among adolescents: A Pilot study among in-school adolescents in Ibadan.
Niger J Public Heal. 2017;2(1):57–70. [Accessed 9/09/2018].
28. National Population Commission. National Population Commission of Nigeria__ [Internet].
Available from: http://www.population.gov.ng/[Accessed 11/11/2018].
29. Undergraduate Admissions lead City University. Lead City University Website [Accessed 11/11/2018].
30. Suresh K, Chandrashekara S. Sample size estimation and power analysis for clinical research
studies. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2012;5(1):7. [Accessed 11/11/2018].
31. WHO. STEPS Instrument Overview. World Health Organization; 2017. p. 68.[Accessed
32. List of schools in Oyo state. Oyo state government website http://oyomesischools.com.ng/_gov/public.php [Accessed 02/03/2018].
33. Nzeagwu, O.C., & Akagu, J.C. (2011). Food Habits and Nutritional Status of Nigerian Undergraduates. Conference proceedings
34. Mohamed Hassan Elnaem, Shazia Qasim Jamshed & Ramadan Elkalmi (2019) Knowledge of the risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among pharmacy students: findings from a Malaysian University, International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 57:4, 217-228, DOI: 10.1080/14635240.2019.1602070
35. Biol, Int & Res, Med & Ade, Anju & Mane, Abhay & Hiremath, S & Publications, Biomedscidirect. (2014). Non-communicable diseases: Awareness of risk factors and lifestyle among rural adolescents. International journal of biological and medical research. 5. 3769-3771.