Assessment of hygienic conditions of recreational facility restrooms: an integrated approach


air sampling; bioaerosol; Legionella spp.; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; recreational facility restrooms;


Introduction. Microbiological quality of recreational environ- ments included restrooms, is generally assessed by water and surface monitoring. In this study, an environmental monitoring, conducted in spring, of swimming pool restrooms of a recreation center located in the Marche region has been carried out. Seven water samples and seven surface swabs were collected. Moreover, six air samples have been included. The aim of this study was to evaluate if air microbiological monitoring, along with molecular detection in real-time PCR, could give additional useful information about the hygienic conditions of the facility.

Methods. Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) both at 22°C (psy- chrophilic) and 37°C (mesophilic) was determined by separate cultures in all samples. The presence of Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by both culture and real-time PCR.

Results. The analysis of shower water recorded a HPC load of mesophilic bacteria (37°C) more than 10-fold higher in men restroom, respect to women’s one (> 100 vs < 10 CFU/ml), while in air samples was between < 100 and > 500. Concerning pathogen presence, both species Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected only in men restroom, but in different sample types by using different methods (culture and real-time PCR).

Conclusions. Air sampling may offer the advantage of giving more representative data about microbial presence in restrooms, including bacterial species transmitted through aerosol, like Legionella. Moreover, the concurrent use of molecular and micro- biological detection in an integrated approach could offer the advantage of greater sensitivity.


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