Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a severe disease caused by various Neisseria meningitidis serogroups that represents a serious public health problem worldwide. In Italy, serogroups B and C are the major causes of IMD. On 14 January 2013, the European Medicines Agency authorized the use of the first vaccine available to protect against meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB).
The aim of this study was to assess the IMD epidemiology knowledge and 4CMenB vaccine attitudes of healthcare workers (HCWs) with regard torecommending this vaccine for use, vaccine practices and infectious disease control in the Campania region in Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 293 HCWs (49.5% physicians and 46.4% nurses) interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire.
The majority of the HCWs had sufficient knowledge about the disease incidence and lethality, but they were less informed about the higher risk age categories and the serogroups most frequently involved. Additionally, their knowledge about the vaccine waspoor with regard to the targeted categories and side effects. Approximately30.0% of the HCWs reported incidences of fever andpain and swelling at the injection site. Moreover,32.8% of the HCWs knew that the risk of developing adverse reactions increases when the 4CMenB vaccine is co-administered with other vaccines.
Overall, all of the HCWs wereconvinced that vaccinations are an important instrument forpreventing infectious diseases, and they were aware of theircentral role in promoting the 4CmenB vaccination and their need to be better informed.
McIntyre PB, O’Brien KL, Greenwood B, Van de Beek D. Effect of vaccines on bacterial meningitis worldwide. Lancet. 2012; 380:1703-11.doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61187-8.
Jafri RZ, Ali A, Messonnier NE, Tevi-Benissan C, Durrheim D, Eskola J, Fermon F, Klugman KP, Ramsay M, Sow S, Zhujun S, Bhutta ZA, Abramson J. Global epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease. Popul Health Metrics.2013; 11-17.doi: 10.1186/1478-7954-11-17.
Rouphael NG, Stephens DS. Neisseria meningitidis: biology, microbiology, and epidemiology. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;799:1-20.doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-346-2_1.
Working group European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Surveillance of invasive bacterial diseases in Europe. 2012.Available athttps://ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/media/en/publications/Publications/Surveillance%20of%20IBD%20in%20Europe%202012.pdf(Accessed 18/05/2018).
Stefanelli P, Fazio C, Neri A, Boros S, Renna G, Pompa MG. Changing epidemiology of infant meningococcal disease after the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C vaccine in Italy,2006-2014. Vaccine. 2015; 33(31):3678-81.doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.06.032
Brigham KS, Sandora TJ. Neisseria meningitidis: epidemiology, treatment and prevention in adolescents. Current Opinion in Paediatrics.2009;21:437-43. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e32832c9668.
Stein-Zamir C, Shoob H, Sokolov I, Kunbar A, Abramson N, Zimmerman D. The clinical features and long-term sequelae of invasive meningococcal disease in children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.2014;33:777-9. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000282.
Stefanelli P, Rezza G. Impact of vaccination on meningococcal epidemiology. Human Vaccines &Immunotherapeutics. 2016; 12(4):1051-5.doi: 10.1080/21645515.2015.1108502.
Pace D. Novel quadrivalent meningococcal A, C, W-135 and Y glycoconjugate vaccine for the broader protection of adolescents and adults. Future Microbiol. 2010;5(11):1629-40.doi: 10.2217/fmb.10.137.
Stefanelli P, Pantosti A, Cerquetti M, Riccardo F. Dati di sorveglianza delle malattie batteriche invasive -Istituto Superiore della Sanità (ISS). 2017.Available athttp://old.iss.it/binary/mabi/cont/Report_MBI_20170403_finale.pdf(Accessed 18/05/2018).
Signorelli C, Chiesa V, Odone A. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccine in Italy: state-of-art, organizational aspects and perspectives. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene. 2015;56(3):125-32.
Azzari C, Canessa C, Lippi F, Moriondo M, Indolfi G, Nieddu F, Martini M, De Martino M, Castiglia P, Baldo V, Resti M. Distribution of invasive meningococcal B disease in Italian pediatric population: implications for vaccination timing. Vaccine; 2014; 32:1187-91. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.055.
AlfonsiV,D’AnconaF,GiambiC,Nacca G, Rota MC.Regional coordinators for infectious diseases and vaccinations. Current immunization policies for pneumococcal, meningococcal C, varicella and rotavirus vaccinations in Italy. Health Policy.2011;103:176-83. doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2011.10.002.
Rizzo C, Bonanni P, Carsetti R, Ciofi degli Atti M, Esposito S, Lippi F, et al. Il nuovo vaccino antimeningococco B: implicazioni e prospettive di prevenzione vaccinale. Rivista di Immunologia e Allergologia Pediatrica. 2014;2-8.
Martin NG, Snape MD. A multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal vaccine is licensed for use in Europe: what do we know and what are we yet to learn?Expert Rev Vaccines.2013;12(8):837-58.doi: 10.1586/14760584.2013.814862.
Findlow J, Bai X, Findlow H, Newton E, Kaczmarski E, Miller E, Borrow R. Safety and immunogenicity of a four-component meningococcal group B vaccine (4CMenB) and a quadrivalent meningococcal group ACWY conjugate vaccine administered concomitantly in healthy laboratory workers. Vaccine. 2015; 33(29):3322-30.doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.05.027.
Working group National Center for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion (CNESPS). Vaccinazione anti-meningococco B: dati ed evidenze disponibili per l'introduzione in nuovi nati e adolescenti-Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS). 2014 (Anti-meningococcal vaccination B: data and evidence available for introduction into newborns and adolescents). Available at http://www.epicentro.iss.it/temi/vaccinazioni/pdf/Istruttoria%20MENINGOCOCCO%20B.pdf(Accessed 18/05/2018).
Piano Nazionale Prevenzione Vaccinale 2014-2018 (National Health Plan). Approved with agreement state-regions on 13th November 2014. Available athttp://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pubblicazioni_2285_allegato.pdf(Accessed 18/05/2018).
Wiley KE, Massey PD, Cooper SC, Wood N, Quinn HE, Leask J. Pregnant women’s intention to take up a post-partum pertussis vaccine, and their willingness to take up the vaccine while pregnant: a cross sectional survey. Vaccine.2013; 31(37):3972-8.doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.06.015.
Vishram B, Letley L, Jan Van Hoek A, Silverton L, Donovan H, Adams C, Green D, Edwards A, Yarwood J, Bedford H, Amirthalingam G, Campbell H. Vaccination in pregnancy: attitudes of nurses, midwives and health visitors in England. HumVaccinImmunother. 2018;14(1):179-88.doi: 10.1080/21645515.2017.1382789.
Kennedy C, Gray Brunton C, Hogg R.‘Just that little bit of doubt’: Scottish parents', teenage girls' and health professionals' views of the MMR, H1N1 and HPV vaccines. Int J Behav Med. 2014; 21(1):3-10.doi: 10.1007/s12529-013-9356-4.
Ellingson M, Chamberlain AT. Beyond the verbal: pregnant women's preferences for receiving influenza and Tdap vaccineinformation from their obstetric care providers. HumVaccin Immunother.2018;14(3):767-71.doi: 10.1080/21645515.2018.1425114.
Paterson P, Meurice F, Stanberry LR, Glismann S, Rosenthal SL, Larson HJ. Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers. Vaccine. 2016;34(52):6700-6.doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.10.042.
Ammon A, Prats Monnè XP. Vaccines, trust and European public health.Euro Surveill. 2018;23(17):18.doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.